Risk factors for violence among young people and violence using knives

•A wide range of factors can increase the risk of violence among young people and violence using knives, many of which are common to both perpetrators and victims. This topic identifies factors related to individuals, their relationships and the communities and societies in which they live that have been associated with violence among young people and the use of weapons: an ecological model of violence.

• Individual factors
• Gender

Young males report greater involvement in assault and bullying than females and are at increased risk of carrying weapons and being the victims of knife-related violence. Examples include boys are more likely to perpetrate bullying, and girls often reported
greater victimization. Women can also be at greater risk of victimization through other forms of violence, including sexual and intimate partner violence although violent relationships can often involve abuse by both male and female partners specific to knife-related violence, in England, 90% of hospital admissions for knife-related assaults are among males and in Scotland, men 15–34 years old are mostly at risk.

2.2 Age
Different forms of violence can affect young people at different stages of life. Among 11- to 15-year-olds in the Region, the prevalence of being a victim of bullying decreases with age, whereas that of being a perpetrator increases . In England and Wales, a study of people 10–25 years old found that assault perpetration peaked at age 14–15 years, with elevated levels among males aged 12–19 years and females aged 12–17 years.

2.3 Ethnicity
Studies often find that the risk of violence among young people varies between ethnic groups however there’s a marked over representation of victims and perpetrators among the black ethnic minorities in general terms compared to other ethnic minorities and the majority white Caucasian counterparts .

The David Lammy report (2014) for example, the report found that young black males are 10.5 times more likely than young white males to be arrested for robbery. In general, black men were more than three times more likely to be arrested than white men

2.4 Mental and behavioral characteristics
Children with personality and behavioral characteristics such as hyperactivity, attention problems, poor behavioral control, sensation-seeking and impulsiveness are at increased risk of becoming involved in violence as young people.

Low self-esteem in adolescence has been associated with aggression , as have feelings of hopelessness about the future (such as not expecting to live long or viewing the future negatively) and depression.

2.5 Low academic achievement
Numerous studies have associated low academic achievement and aspirations and poor commitment to school with violence among young people .

2.6 Past victimization and fear of violence
Young people who have experienced violence in childhood are at increased risk of being involved in further violence in adolescence and adulthood. Young people with histories of physical or sexual abuse in childhood can also have increased risks of perceiving a need to carry a weapon, actually carrying a weapon and reporting having threatened someone else with a weapon. Experiencing, witnessing and fearing other forms of violence can also increase the risk of carrying a weapon. There appears to be a relationship between weapon-carrying and being a victim of physical violence, weapon-related violence (such as being stabbed or threatened with a knife), rape, bullying and other forms of crime (such as having property stolen)

2.8 Other drug use
Young people who smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs have an increased risk of being involved in violence. Smoking tobacco is likely to be a proxy for risk-taking behavior among young people rather than a cause. Although the same can be true for illicit drug use, the pharmaceutical effects of some illicit drugs may make people more vulnerable to violence. Substances such as cocaine and amphetamines have been particularly linked to violence.

3 Relationship factors
3.1 Family structure
Family structure can affect a young person’s risk of violence. Young people living in single-parent families or in large families (with many siblings) or who have teenage mothers have been found to be more likely to become involved in violence during adolescence. Young people who suffer abuse in childhood or grow up in dysfunctional families (with family conflict) can also experience higher levels of violence and weapon-carrying.

3.2 Peer relationships
Young people who associate with delinquent peers have increased risks of violence and weapon-carrying. The Self-report Delinquency Study found that 18% of adolescents with delinquent friends had-committed assault in the past year compared with 2% of those without delinquent friends

At the seminar questionnaires were provided to participants to be filled below are some of the feedbacks that were given.

These ware obtained from 19 randomly selected participants


Table1.did the seminar meet your learning objectives.

   Objectives No of respondents
 a)  Good workshop  5(25%)
 b)  I have not had the chance to hear the young generation for sometime  1(5%)
 c)  Helped me understand and learn more  3(15%)
 d)  Helped me understand and learn more  1(5%)
 e)  Parents and children had the opportunity to express themselves freely what they feel and think of what can be done and what cant be done  3(15%)
 f)  I was happy others think the same way as me  4(20%)
 g)  Being able to speak up  3(15%)
   Total  19(100%)

2. How do you intend to intend to apply what you learn?

 No  Applications No of respondents
 a)  Am going to follow through with what I have said and what was said  1
 b)  Explore how we can build adheres with adheres with young people parents and partner NGOS  1
 c)  Communicate better with family members and respect  1
 d)  Learn to apply what I was taught have a serious talk with my parents about my behavior  1
 e)  Repeat what I’ve learnt and do it again  1
 f)  Being understanding that our culture community is very important even if we live in a white culture  1
 g)  Taking adult advise and wok on my communication as well in a creative way  1
 h)  Through myself and other people I know sharing with others  1
 i)  Understanding children and parents  1
 j)  Telling friends about knife crime  1
 k)  My children have learnt a lot our relationship is going to change  1
   Total  11

11 respondents out of 19 were able to respond to this section of the questionnaire

•Were the presentations made clearly?

A respondent said I will start with the person who said no their comment was it could be more organized. Great police and youth did well. Each point was explained and delivered well enough for everyone to understand clearly. The guest professionals were fantastic the children and adults were amazing. Others said they were taking advise from the youth and adult .Very clearly and simple language used for easy understanding. Presentations were great and helpful.
Organized well                        3
Very clear                               7
Simple language                     3
Professionals                          2
Advise from youth and adults   4
Total                                     19

4. Was the aim of the program wellexplained?

 No  Aim No of respondents
 1  To understand knife crime and its different aspects  7(40%)
 2  I was able to get the grasp of reality and how to act as a young adult  5(30%)
 3  Yes we need to have more meetings like this  4(20%)
 4  Very useful  3(10%)
   Total  19(100%)


5. Was the room suitable for the seminar?

Answers were yes comments as follows
• Excellent
• For numbers who attended yes but for future very restrictive the location was good as well
• Not big or small either
• According to the number that come to the event the arrangement was fine
• May be a little bigger room because their were a lot of people
• Ok but noise control was difficult sound
• Yes plenty of space loved it
• Very suitable next time have a stage
Majority of the respondents 50% were able to mention the suitability of the room and comfort just a few 10% made note about the distance being far and place being small

6. Have you any suggested improvements regarding this seminar

Comments from respondents about the improvement of the place were as follows
• It was great I loved it
• Follow up recommendation
• It can happen regularly
• Invite more parents and children
• Its timing should be examined to attract more parents and youth
• Organize more

7. Out of 10 please rate the seminar

80% rated 8 and 10% rated 5 and 1% rated below 5%

The comments of the respondents
One respondent was able to respond to the reaction of the people being late.3 respondents really enjoyed themselves.5 respondents requesting the seminar to be tried again and 4 respondents looking forward to the next seminar.6 respondents praising the creativity of the seminar with the response of great ideas

8.Would want the outcome of this survey?
11 respondents were able to respond to this question they are interested in knowing the outcomes of the survey.